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Psychosocial Environment

Common Stressors

Stress, much like beauty, is in the eye of the beholder. What is stressful for one person may not be for another. However, there are some events and environments which typically cause stress:1

  • Changes to family: marriage, pregnancy, death, divorce, a new child
  • Work environment: job change, job loss, promotion, work overload, conflict at work, business failure, employee strike
  • Living environment: new house, relocation to a new community, loss of a home, neighborhood crime
  • Physical environment or conditions: noise, pollution, traffic, violence, illness, disability, injury, pain, cold, heat, lack of sleep, hunger, malnutrition, natural disaster, unsafe surroundings, physical abuse or neglect
  • Economic environment: poverty, escalating bills, unanticipated expenses, theft
  • Social environment: isolation, family or peer demands, forced separation (such as from military service, prison, abandonment or conflict), grief, emotional abuse or neglect, legal entanglements, bullying, difficult roommates or neighbors

Three Billboards Outside Ebbing, Missouri

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The reason is twofold: For one, logistically, there are simply too many opportunities to get caught job searching. Résumé copies will be found. Computer servers will be checked. Co-workers will notice when you're clearly elsewhere, either literally for interviews or emotionally (more on that later)。
'Increased production in the U.S. meant that spot prices weren't reacting quite as much as in previous geopolitical incidents,' Mr. Hansen said. There is so much supply that threats to it have less impact than previously, and 2014 will be 'the first year in a while when supply growth is going to outpace demand growth,' Mr. Hansen said.
6、Social media addiction

But the crash hit. The economy tanked. The recession lasted 30 months. Wall Street lost over $8 trillion of our retirement money. In the first decade of the 21st century, from the 2000 dot-com crash till 2010 disaster Wall Street's had a negative inflation-adjusted performance. Today Wall Street's returns are just barely beating inflation. No wonder investors feel cheated by Wall Street's casinos.
1)谢谢:只是一般的礼貌?没错。那你告诉我,上一次你忘了说(或者拒绝说)谢谢是在什么时候?无论是在公开场合还是在私底下,说一句真诚的“谢谢”都会为你树立好口碑。也别忘了妈妈给你的忠告,“说请”。人们都喜欢比人请自己去做事而不是接受别人的命令去干活。
It was an incredible achievement for SpaceX. The first stage rocket of one of its Falcon 9 launchers, having successfully lofted cargo to the International Space Station, managed to turn itself around, bleed off the enormous kinetic energy it had acquired while its main engines were burning, fly back down to Earth and land vertically - with balletic precision - on a rather tiny looking robotic barge floating somewhere in the Atlantic.

Our psychosocial environment includes our responses to stressors in our lives, from temporary ones such as a traffic jam to major stressors such as war, homelessness or major disease. Our relationships with family members, friends, colleagues and other individuals and groups with whom we interact in our communities are an important part of this environment. These can impact our capacity to deal with stressors. Nurturing, supportive relationships allow us to better access all our innate resources to respond to stress in positive ways.2

family support

 

河北钢铁日减产820万吨

斯卡曼德是个魔法生物研究学家。
vaccine
"Many companies operating with reduced staff levels are bringing in reinforcements to relieve their overworked teams," notes Max Messmer, Robert Half's chairman and CEO. "While some firms are backfilling positions out of necessity, businesses are also hiring to accommodate anticipated growth in 2011."

Stress and the Body's Response

Our bodies, families, communities and lives are embedded in a complex network of systems. The degree of support in the environment can shape a person’s resilience. Likewise, an environment that is stressful can foster disease. The conditions of a person’s social and psychological environment—those in which they are born, grow, live, work and age—are known as the social determinants of health. These conditions are shaped by the distribution of money, power and resources at global, national and local levels.3

Risks for Stress: Riskscapes

A riskscape, or landscape of risks, captures the overlapping threats to health occurring in a physical location that increase risk for disease.4 An example of overlapping risks can be seen in impoverished neighborhoods,5 which often experience many of the stressors listed above simultaneously. We discuss poverty in more detail on our Socioeconomic Environment page.

Minority status, age and gender further interact to increase risk for disease.6 Individuals experience additional adversity when they live amid wealth and affluence but do not share those resources.7

Here are some of the year's pinnacles and potholes:
Comic skit “You’ve Got Trouble”(Sun Tao, Qin Hailu etc)
据德国工商总会的统计数据显示,中国于2016年超越美国,首次成为德国的最大贸易市场。

Stressful Environments and the Social Ecological Model of Health

The rise of chronic disease is a complex and growing problem for public health in the US.8 Stress, particularly exposure to long-term chronic stress, is associated with the majority of chronic health conditions.9

Social Ecological Model of Health

The Social Ecological Model of Health Promotion (SEM) describes how our psychosocial experiences are nested inside layers that influence health and well-being:10

  • individual
  • interpersonal (familial)
  • communal (neighborhood)
  • societal

The Human Stress Response System

This response system is evolutionarily old and has been shaped by the environmental experiences of thousands of preceding generations. Through millennia of adverse environmental challenges, adaptations and collective evolution, humans have developed a sophisticated stress response system.11

The physical stress response is a complex network of coordinated physical and behavioral activations from the endocrine and nervous systems:12

When a threat is perceived, the hypothalamus activates the sympathetic nervous system (the "fight or flight" response) by sending signals through the autonomic nerves to the adrenal glands. The adrenal glands pump the hormone epinephrine—also known as adrenaline—into the bloodstream, causing several physiological changes:13
  • It all started when Beatty opened the envelope to read the winner for best picture. He looked confused, took a long pause and then glanced at Dunaway. "Come on!" Beatty handed the envelope to Dunaway, who announced: "La La Land!"
  • 住建部:将依法依规控制棚改成本 严禁违规支出
  • 这些人当中,有些人会借助另一些问题表达他们的忧虑:贸易、犯罪、毒品战争、边境控制、对伊斯兰恐怖主义的恐惧。诚然,这些问题都很重要,也为许多人带来了真切的恐惧,但是它们已经变成一种方式,公众借助这些问题来讨论社会变革对于占多数的白人群体的影响。
  • 澳大利亚置业投资项目领跑北京春季房展海外展区
  • 工行公司部近期对各分行下发文件 明确要求加大基础设施、棚户区等领域项目储备
  • INDOORS: This house was completed around 1848 and last updated in 2008. The front door has a transom and sidelights of red glass etched with a leaf motif. The first floor has a large living room with crown molding and two fireplaces, one of which warms the formal dining area. Off the living room is a family room with raised wall paneling, a wet bar and another dining area. French doors open to a slate patio. Several rooms have views of Little Narragansett Bay.
    So many are tuning out. Denial. Truth is, bubbles are everywhere. Ready to blow. The evidence is accelerating, with only one obvious conclusion: Max 98% risk at a flashpoint. This 2014 crash is virtually guaranteed. There's but a narrow 2% chance of dodging this bullet.

When the initial surge of epinephrine subsides, the hypothalamus activates the 武汉人才变局:昔日东南飞,今朝凤还巢, signaling the release of cortisol to keep the sympathetic nervous system engaged.

When the threat passes, the parasympathetic nervous system (the "rest and digest" function) calms the body and returns it to a pre-threat state.

PsychosocialHPA

Click to zoom

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The SEM is particularly useful in allowing researchers to study stressors from the micro scale (cellular) to the macro scale (social policy), positioning their work in the larger social ecological context.14 Layers are labeled with their corresponding social determinants of health.

PsychosocialSEMModelLWalker

若首付贷全面叫停 房产中介利润将损失多少?

Policies that affect economic and social determinants (top level) can decrease access to income and education, and have powerful effects on neighborhood stressors.15

These policies shape disparities in local environments (second level)16 such as poverty, pollution, crime rates and political power.

Daily opportunities (third level) create or suppress nurturing environments and govern the frequency and intensity of daily hassles (discrimination and microaggressions).17

These layers affect our daily behaviors and patterns (fourth level) and daily interactions.

As these pressures funnel down from the political to the community to the individual, they become observational cues (fifth level) that the environment is threatening, unpredictable or uncontrollable and thus stressful.18

Upon activation, the brain sends signals to the body to mount a stress response.19

stressed child

让品牌自我正名 瓷业深入市场开启省力模式

Allostasis: The Body’s Stress Response

When the brain interprets a threat, it sends a cascading signal through the body that causes a stress response, known casually as "fight or flight" and more formally as an allostatic response.20 See The Human Stress Response System at right for more detail.

In healthy doses and supportive environments, this response is tempered and can foster learning.21 In adversarial environments the allostatic response can manifest as chest pain, heart palpitations, headaches, dysphagia (difficulty swallowing), intestinal cramping, anxiety, panic, immobility, frustration, muscle tension and inflammation.22

These reactions can be exhausting and imprint a strong memory of fear on the brain.23 Fortunately, a feedback system in the brain is capable of stopping the stress response. 24 Terminating the stress response and restoring the body to pre-stress response states is important to protecting the body’s long-term health.25

Programming the Stress Response

When early-life experiences signal that the environment is unpredictable, threatening or uncontrollable, the stress response system may be reprogrammed, becoming blunted,26 or may be programmed to be sensitized and thus more responsive.

Responsivity is informed by the number of steroid receptors available during stress termination.27 The feedback system in the brain—cells in the hippocampus—have glucocorticoid receptors that, once filled, signal the termination of the stress response. When there are fewer glucocorticoid receptors in these cells, it takes a higher circulating quantity of cortisol to terminate the stress response.

The number of receptors available in the feedback system is dependent on how many proteins are produced in that cell. This is determined by the availability of the receptor gene to be transcribed into proteins. Stress signals, such as cortisol, circulating in maternal blood during pregnancy, can epigenetically alter the glucocorticoid receptor gene to be permanently downregulated, causing fewer receptor proteins to be produced.28

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How our bodies respond to stress varies across the population,29 determined by genetic predisposition30 and previous experiences including exposure to maternal stress signals before birth31 The typical responsivity can be modified by genetic predisposition32 but is generally neither amplified nor repressed.33 This neutral programming is optimal in moderately stressful environment where life is not overly threatening nor consistently safe. Over an individual’s life, neutral programming is optimal in balancing the risk for internal burnout from repetitive stress burden and survival in adverse environments long enough to maximize periods for mating and parenting.34

Chronic Stress and Disease: Weathering

With repeated exposure to stressors, the HPA axis activation is sustained, and stress signals continue to flood the body. This sustained activation delays the onset of restorative repair and pushes the body into pre-disease states.35 Chronic stress acts on the cardiovascular, metabolic, neuroendocrine and immune systems:36

  • Although Facebook is blocked in China, Tencent has linked WeChat to Facebook, which means that users outside of China can use the service in conjunction with the world's most popular social network. That is a boon for WeChat in Southeast Asian countries like Indonesia, Thailand and the Philippines, which have large numbers of Facebook users. Tencent has offered WeChat in languages for all three markets.
    The PPI has been negative for 44 consecutive months, reflecting excess supply of housing materials and raw materials, and overcapacity in heavy industry.
  • 1. 三菱。品牌喜爱度:-12%/排名:360
    One of the more notorious incidents was when Zhu Ling, a student at the prestigious Tsinghua University, was paralyzed when her roommate allegedly poisoned her with thallium in 1994.
    深化生态文明体制改革。
    确认发现近地宜居行星
    Chile were one of the most exciting teams at the 2010 World Cup and recentky gave England the run around at Wembley, whilst if Colombia can get Radamel Falcao fit then they could cause an upset or two. So of all the South American teams, only Ecuador look like they might struggle to get out of the group stages, with all the others more than capable of reaching the latter stages.

Over time, stress deteriorates health and resilience. This process is referred to as weathering.37 Just as a flag that weathers many storms begins to fray, so too does the body when it experiences harsh environments of social inequity.38 The health outcomes are mental illness, chronic disease morbidity and premature death.39 In short, stress causes physical changes that impact our health and functioning.

The frequency, duration, intensity, source, target and proximity of stressors influence the extent of the stress response. The duration of response can increase an individual’s risk for physical and mental burnout. Stressors that are higher intensity or longer duration carry a high internal burden (allostatic load).40 Over time this internal pressure forces body systems to adapt in ways that foster pre-disease states.41

In weathering, each body system adapts to this internal pressure through secondary changes:42

Dysregulation in these areas  can cause these secondary changes.43   With chronic stress, such changes increase the risk for these conditions:44
  • Cardiopulmonary system
  • Metabolism
  • Mental functioning
  • Autoimmune response
  • Aging
  • Increased startle response
  • Anxiety and vigilance
  • 应届生就业新趋势:新一线城市吸引力吸纳能力双双上升
  • Glucose sensitivity
  • Immune suppression
  • 稳投资 有储备有信心

Stress-induced Gene Expression

Physiologic shifts following stressful exposures occur in large part through hormone-activated gene expression.45 When cortisol is released by the adrenal glands into the blood stream, it targets glucocorticoid responsive genes in tissues distributed throughout the body,46 including the central nervous system, metabolism, immune, cardiovascular, endocrine and renal systems.47

Within each cell nucleus, the steroid hormone binds with its receptor, and this complex binds to a stretch of DNA called a hormone response element.48 This binding activates gene expression to shift the physiologic activity of the target cell. In this way, stressful experiences, mediated through the allostatic response, have an epigenetic effect on the body.

See our Gene-Environment Interaction page for further explanation.

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Through this process, chronic stress responses cause weathering on the body, eroding health status.49 As years turn into decades, the physiologic changes (such as hypertension, metabolic disorder or anxiety) may become irreversible, often increasing co-morbidities, potentially increasing maladaptive coping mechanisms (such as social aversion, drug and alcohol dependence) and decreasing life expectancy.50

Through these mechanisms social structures can get under the skin, alter our bodies and cause disease. The loss of productivity and financial burden of systemic disease further erodes family and community resilience, especially when the chronic stress starts in childhood.51

Disadvantaged Populations

Lower social classes experience longer durations of chronic stress, such as lengthy unemployment or institutionalized discrimination. Those with less power experience barriers to achievement of life goals, such as high costs of educational programs or lack of childcare options, inadequate recognition and rewards for personal qualification (such as gender pay differences) or for invested effort in the workplace. In the US and other White-majority countries, minorities and women in these environments are exposed to more chronic stressors than their White male counterparts due to differential expectations resulting in role strain and interpersonal conflict.52

Both the sources and frequency of stressors are not distributed equally in society, with heavier burdens borne by those with less advantage.53 These systems of inequity create differences in health outcomes, known as health disparities.54

Stressful Environments and the Developing Child

Stress Effects on Brain Development

Across all European schools, the average salary of alumni three years after graduation ranges from $143,000 for executive MBA graduates to $54,000 for MiM graduates. MBA graduates earned on average $123,000. Spanish and German MiM graduates enjoyed the highest salary three years after graduation, both $70,000 on average. French MBA graduates and Swiss EMBA graduates top their salary scale, with average salaries of $137,000 and $166,000 respectively.
《边桥谜案》(The Bridge),Hulu,周五播出。这部丹麦、瑞典合拍的犯罪剧即将迎来第二季(FX的同名剧集就是根据它改编的,最近刚刚被砍掉),新的一季仍与连接两个乡村的奥莱桑德桥有关。
室内环境:这栋房屋在1848年前后建成,上次翻修是在2008年。房屋前门上方有一扇气窗,侧灯的红色玻璃上蚀刻有叶形花纹。屋内一楼有一间带有顶冠装饰板条和两座壁炉的大客厅,其中的一座壁炉给这间正式的餐厅区供暖。客厅外是一间家庭娱乐室,内有凸起的护壁板、一个带有水槽的吧台和另一处餐厅区。那扇法式双开门通往一处铺着石板的露台。有些房间可观赏小纳拉甘西特湾的景观。
许多技术人员相信,本世纪的智能机器人很有可能和人类进行比赛,并取得胜利。
谷歌英国的搜索结果分为热门趋势搜索榜和搜索次数排行榜。
vi. 自制
In the US, he adds, ETFs emerged into a market where there were lots of registered investment advisers incentivised to use lower-cost products for their clients.

These exposures increased amygdala function, which enhances fear, anxiety, and emotional dysfunction, while it decreased prefrontal cortex function, which participates in regulating and terminating the stress response.55

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Our stress system responds to environmental conditions even before birth56 and is especially sensitive early in development.57 Glucocorticoid receptors are found in most fetal tissue and in the placenta, suggesting they are capable of responding to high maternal cortisol. Early-life experiences shape our stress response and therefore the impact stress has on our health over the life course.

A person’s individual responsiveness to stress signals can shape brain development.58 Highly responsive individuals demonstrate better learning and health outcomes in supportive environments and worse health outcomes in high adversity environments.59 Supportive environments foster better mental and social learning, increase memory and improve decision-making; in such environments, children have adequate time for stress response termination and are generally characterized by openness to information.

In negative environments, however, high responsivity magnifies the body’s response to intense or chronic stressors, increasing the risk for weathering over the life span. Highly responsive individuals can become hypersensitive to social feedback and psychological manipulation, both capable of detracting individuals from achieving goals.60 This increases the risk for future stressful experiences, further increasing the risk for weathering.

cycle of stress and performance

Stress responsivity shapes the intensity of weathering and has implications for later adult health outcomes.61 Responsivity biased toward either under- or over-reactivity can predispose children to adult disease.62 For example, overexposure to maternal stress hormones before birth can restrict birth weight and predispose the developing child to hypertension later in life.63 Effects of parental stress, such as reduced opportunities for bonding and distant parent-child relationships, significantly increase the risk up to fourfold for a child to experience anxiety, depression, diabetes and heart disease as an adult.64 Higher prenatal glucocorticoid exposure is directly associated with higher circulating glucocorticoids in adulthood, and both are associated with increased hypertension and hyperglycemia and changes in adult behaviors.65

Investigating Brain Changes

We rely heavily on animal models to understand early-life stress programming because sampling a core of living human brain is not an option. However, we do have direct human associations: the brains of suicide completers show epigenetic changes in the glucocorticoid receptor gene66 as well as methylation changes in other important genes that inform the intensity of the stress response.67

Newborns of mothers with depressive symptoms during pregnancy also demonstrated increased methylation of the GR gene in umbilical cord blood cells. As three-month-old infants, these children had higher levels of salivary cortisol.68

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Brain Changes

With exposure to chronic stress, the brain changes shape, reducing connections that support nuanced cognitive function, self-regulation and memory; this process is less reversible as a child ages. Through these changes, chronic stress increases the likelihood of aggression, vigilance and anxiety.69 Because an individual suffering from these changes and conditions is handicapped in becoming a nurturing parent (although many people do overcome adversity and become terrific parents), the effects of stress can be self-perpetuating down generations. Through stress biasing, the social determinants can become multigenerational stimulants of chronic disease.70

To the individual, there is a cost for high responsivity. Early life stressors that reshape the brain affect hippocampal and amygdala development that can affect a child’s transition into adolescence. Chronic early stress impacting social learning may predispose teens to depression and substance abuse, both feeding into adult chronic diseases.71 This is a vicious cycle of early childhood adversity. The stress that parents experience can have direct influences on a child’s biological capacity in responding to future stressful situations.72 The parent-child relationship, in utero and through development, provides experiential information that programs stress responsivity.

Telomere Changes

Telomeres are structures on the ends of chromosomes that protect and stabilize chromosomes. They are essential for avoiding cellular dysfunction. Telomere length is reduced with age, smoking and stress, and shorter telomeres can impair health.73

Telomere length in specific blood cells is viewed as a biomarker for cellular aging that is closely associated with age-related and chronic diseases.74 This biomarker may reflect population-level weathering in communities. For example, a study of nine-year-old boys found that adverse environments shaped by low income, low maternal education, unstable family structure and harsh parenting were associated with a 19 percent shortening of white blood cell telomeres as compared to a cohort in more nurturing environments. These boys physically aged faster than their chronical age would suggest. Children with the most sensitivity (highest responsivity) to stress showed the longest telomeres in advantaged environments and the shortest in disadvantaged environments.75

Resilience

Resilience, the capacity to recover quickly from difficulties, is a characteristic of both individuals and communities. Parental bonding is a resilience factor, protecting children from the adverse effects of poverty on emotional and cognitive development.76

Community resilience is difficult to define and measure; the US Department of Health & Human Services defines it as "the ability of a community to use its assets to strengthen public health and healthcare systems and to improve the community’s physical, behavioral, and social health to withstand, adapt to, and recover from adversity".77   A resilient community is one that is socially connected, takes collective action, and has access to necessary resources.

Substantial risks to community health and well-being lie within community adversities such as climate change, urbanization and disparities. In the context of a natural or manmade disaster, increasing community resilience includes better preparedness and disaster planning, promoting community systems, and reducing threats to health. These are some steps communities and public health can take to build resilience:78

  • 如果一并考虑过去几天里公布的数据,情况也不会变得更好。上个月,日本仍在与通缩和家庭开支下滑作斗争。不过,今天早上公布的零售业销售数据超出了人们的估计。
  • 上海经济半年报:楼市运行总体平稳,利用外资由双降转为双升
  • stress
    That's particularly striking in Brazil, with its highly mixed population that has more blacks than any country with the exception of Nigeria. More than half of Brazil's population self-identified themselves as black or of mixed-race in the 2010 census.
  • 人民日报评大数据“杀熟”:用户被算法“算计”了
  • Build social connectedness

Interactions between Chronic Psychosocial Stress and Environmental Toxicants

Research shows impacts of combined stress and toxicants:79

  • but that was markedly lower than the previous month’s rise of 8.2 per cent.
    In the field of the best 85 business schools in Europe, HEC Paris remains in second place behind LBS, while Insead, the international school based in Fontainebleau, France, climbs two places to third.
  • The country has rolled out measures to promote new-energy vehicles, including tax exemptions, subsidies for car purchases and a requirement for government departments to buy more new-energy cars.
    infect+ion→传染;感化
  • loan
    9.The Bling Ring
  • 2016年重庆市GDP增长了10.7%,达到了1.76万亿元人民币。贵州和西藏分别实现了10.5%和10%的GDP增长。
    We will maintain ethical conduct and moral integrity at all times.
    欧洲工商管理学院的出类拔萃不仅表现在一年期MBA课程上,还体现于强大的国际文化(基于两个校区)以及覆盖面最广和最多样化的校友网络之一。该课程在校友国际流动性指标上排名第三,在国际课程体验指标上排名第六。
  • In 2018, more business leaders will channel a potent combination of digitalisation, generational change and growing diversity, to streamline their hierarchies, distribute responsibility, and transform their organisations.
    ['dilidnt]
  • Research in Southern California children found that living in a high-stress home is associated with more susceptibility to the negative effects of air pollution on the lungs.80  
  • In a study of children from birth to age seven, children who experienced high levels of air pollution in utero had lower IQ scores than those not exposed, but only when their mothers experienced material hardship.81

Selected Sources of Stress and Impacts on Health

Psychosocial risk factors for disease include family conflict, neighborhood violence, work stress and social discrimination; these factors can hinder mental and physical health.82

Domestic and Intimate Partner Violence

Global Domestic and Intimate Partner Violence

Globally, most data available is on intimate partner violence and sexual assault against women. An estimated 35 percent of women worldwide have experienced intimate partner violence over their lifetimes. Violence rates range from 71 percent of all women in Ethiopia to 15 percent of all women in Japan. Worldwide, up to 38 percent of all murders of women are committed by their partners.83

Domestic and Intimate Partner Violence: United States

Domestic violence includes violence from spouses, partners, parents, children, siblings or relatives. Three-quarters of incidents occur against women.84 In fact, it is estimated that a US woman is assaulted or beaten every nine seconds.85

Types of Domestic Violence.86

  • Rape
  • Sexual assault
  • Robbery
  • Intimate partner assault

Most violence occurs around the home (77 percent),87 and 19 percent of all violent incidents include the use of a weapon.88

The 行业优势渐褪 木门企业如何实现新增长? shows that between 2003 and 2012, domestic violence accounted for 21 percent of all violent victimizations in the US, with 70 percent of those from intimate partner violence (IPV).89

graph of violent relationships

data from Truman and Morgan90

Preventing Violence in Relationships

Research in high-income areas indicates school-based programs can help prevent relationship violence among young people.91

Costs. Intimate partner violence accounted for $4 billion annually in 1995 in health care services and an additional $900 million in lost productivity.92 When these amounts are updated to 2003 figures, $8.3 billion in annual expenses are estimated, a combination of higher medical costs ($5.8 billion) and lost productivity ($2.5 billion).93

Health outcomes of intimate partner violence. In addition to death and injury (bruising, flesh wounds, fractures, brain injury and headaches), the cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, immune, and endocrine systems are impacted from violence-induced stress, as discussed above.

Health Consequences of Intimate Partner Violence94

Health conditions 

Asthma

Infections

Circulatory conditions

Cardiovascular disease

Fibromyalgia

Irritable bowel syndrome

Chronic pain

房产中介乱象:一套照片成多套房源共用"实景"

Gastrointestinal disorders

Joint disease

Migraines

Headaches 

Reproductive conditions

Gynecological disorders

Pelvic inflammatory disease

Sexual dysfunction

新一轮整合潮来临 家居企业赢在大家居时代

Delayed prenatal care
Preterm delivery

Low birth weight babies

Perinatal deaths

Unintended pregnancies

Psychological conditions

Anxiety

Depression

PTSD

Antisocial behavior

Suicidal behavior in females

Low self-esteem

Inability to trust

Fear of intimacy

Emotional detachment

Sleep disturbances

Flashbacks

Social impacts

Restricted access to services

自然资源部:加快推进批而未供土地处置工作

Isolation from social networks

Homelessness

Health behaviors

High-risk sexual behaviors

Harmful substance abuse

互联网高速发展 建材家居业进入网络营销大时代

Overuse of health services

Child Abuse and Neglect

The CDC provides some 2014 facts on child maltreatment (either abuse or neglect) in the US:95

  • v. 从事运
  • HOUSE OF CARDS (Netflix, Feb. 27) Netflix’s political grand guignol gets a 13-episode third season. Kim Dickens of “Treme” joins Kevin Spacey and Robin Wright in the cast, and two members of Pussy Riot will make a guest appearance.
  • 11月百城住宅均价连续4个月“双涨”

The CDC estimates total lifetime costs of child maltreatment at $124 billion annually.:96

Youth Violence

Any violence—including being a victim, offender or witness—in early childhood extending into young adulthood is considered youth violence. The US CDC provides some important US statistics to consider:97

  • ['vai?r?s]
  • In 2012, an average of 13 people ages 10 to 24 were victims of homicide and 1642 more were treated in emergency departments each day.
  • 吊床架
    萨姆·史密斯是一个风格多变的男人,他可以在奥蒂斯·雷丁、艾瑞莎·弗兰克林和雷·查尔斯以及像艾米·怀恩豪斯和阿黛尔这样的现代偶像的风格中随意转换。
    adj. 有效的,有影响的
  • n. 好客,殷勤,酒店管理

Inspire strategies

World Health Organization with CDC and other global partners created INSPIRE, a technical package of seven evidence-based strategies to end violence against children. Click to open the Inspire infographic from the WHO website.

Risk factors for youth violence:98

  • A history of violence
  • Substance abuse
  • Delinquent behaviors
  • Poor family functioning
  • Poor grades in school
  • Community poverty

Adverse Childhood Experiences

PsychosocialCDCACEpyramid

graphic from the CDC;99 click to zoom

Adverse childhood experiences—ACEs—were first identified in the late 1990s. The risk for violence, victimization, and disease outcomes are heavily impacted by early childhood experiences. As shown at right, adverse childhood experiences can set children on an arduous path that increases risk for poor health behaviors, disease, disability, social problems and early death outcomes.100

  • 白意味着属于一个外表、传统、宗教乃至食物都符合默认常规的群体。按照不言而喻的规则,白人意味着是一个长期被称作是“我们”,而不是“他们”中的一份子的人。
  • 李稻葵预测未来两年中国房价:温和上涨
  • 8.My resume is 5 pages long for a good reason. – Because I’m darn good at bullshittin’!

Examples of Adverse Childhood Experiences

Abuse

  • Emotional
  • Physical
  • Sexual

Household challenges

  • 海鸥卫浴上半年净利1605万元 同比增长20.94%
  • Household substance abuse
  • 深圳市将建立海域使用权出让制度
  • Parental separation or divorce
  • Criminal household member

Neglect

  • Emotional
  • Physical

房地产监管风潮燃起:超30城加入整治行列

  • Alcoholism / alcohol abuse
  • 部分城市库存下降 四季度有望推升市场成交规模
  • Depression
  • Fetal death
  • Illicit drug use
  • Ischemic heart disease
  • Liver disease
  • Financial stress
  • 木林森董事人事变动 林纪良出任第二把手
  • Sexually transmitted diseases
  • Suicide attempts
  • Smoking
  • Adolescent pregnancy
  • Risk for sexual violence
  • Poor academic achievement

Neighborhood Violence

Living in a neighborhood that experiences high levels of violence can have a devastating impact on people’s long-term mental and physical health.  People who live in neighborhoods with high rates of violence suffer from trauma-related illnesses such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), at higher rates.101

child memorial in a poor neighborhood

Profit at property insurers fell 43.39 per cent year-on-year to Rmb33.7bn. For life insurance firms it dropped 65.6 per cent to Rmb54.2bn, while for reinsurers it fell 58.8 per cent to Rmb4.4bn.

Exposure to neighborhood violence is especially harmful for children—it has been shown to impair children’s cognitive abilities and academic performance, and potentially contribute to inattentive and compulsive behaviors.102

Other health outcomes are associated with negative characteristics of residential settings including fewer cancer screenings, cardiovascular disease, and the outcomes of violence discussed above. The risk or resilience of a community can directly affect the prevalence of child maltreatment.103

A 2015 review of national and international studies in urban areas found these associations. More research is needed in rural areas to understand if these factors are generalizable:104

  • In the US community unemployment rate, per capita income, poverty rate and educational status were associated with intimate partner violence.
  • Internationally, though lacking representation from Europe or the Middle East, intimate partner violence was associated with community norms, community attitudes towards women, women’s literacy, education, and murder rates. Women’s empowerment is also shown to be protective against IPV.
  • Households with higher proportions of children were also associated with an increased risk of IPV.
  • Community characteristics such as lower collective efficacy, social cohesion, higher perceived neighborhood disorder, and general social disorganization are associated with an increase of IPV. Although crime and violence rates themselves have mixed results with association to IPV, higher levels of perceived violence and worry about violence are associated with IPV.

Discrimination

Racism, sexism, and other forms of discrimination exert a negative influence on mental health in a variety of ways. While experiencing discrimination within a person’s community is deeply stressful in and of itself, discrimination can also place certain groups at a higher risk of other adversities (poverty, segregation, unemployment, violence), which can also negatively impact health. Systematic racism, for example, raises exposure of communities of color to social exclusion and economic adversity, thereby placing them at a higher risk of stress, anxiety and chronic disease.105

Work Stress

Many factors in a person’s workplace can have a negative impact on their mental well-being. Factors such as poor work satisfaction, high demand, low job security, harassment and work disorganization can all cause people to feel substantially stressed while on the job. A 2016 investigation found 43 percent of working adults said their job negatively affects their stress levels. Others said their job negatively affects their eating habits (28 percent), sleeping habits (27 percent) and weight (22 percent).106

Behavioral Responses to Stress

The Brexit trade uncertainty
['vid?il?ns]
但是,这一情况在两年前发生了变化,清华大学首次跻身前20名,2016年排名第18位。去年,北京大学也跻身前20名。
Johan Pettersson被授予搞笑化学奖,以表彰其揭示了瑞典小城Anderslv居民的头发会变绿的原因,因为这里的水中含铜量太大。
With its goal of universal healthcaresystem coverage by 2020, Chinais expected to transform the medicine market, becoming the second largest afterthe US.In the next five years, Chinaexpects per capita spending to grow by 70 percent.
5.星佳(Zynga)品牌喜爱度:-5%/排名:5
As stars such as Kevin Spacey and Morgan Freeman were alleged to have assaulted or harassed performers, activists began using the hashtag to share their ordeals online.
Referencing the American chat show host, he quipped: 'I've always wanted to meet Jay Leno,' before laughing to himself. Clearly unimpressed, Dallas Buyers Club star Jared hit back: 'Sorry, what was your name again?'But audiences seemed to pick up on the atmosphere between the two, with one viewer joking: 'Think Jared Leto got a bit paranoid about Grinder looking at him.'
It was billed as the year in which female film-makers and women's issues would be in the spotlight. The festival opened with a film by a female director for the first time in 28 years, Isabella Rossellini chaired the Un Certain Regard jury and Salma Hayek convened a high-profile panel to discuss the role of women in cinema. There was plenty to talk about – but had anything really changed? The numbers seemed to speak for themselves: of the 19 films in competition, only two were directed by women. And then came 'Heelgate' – of which, more later… Faced with suggestions that the festival is sexist, artistic director Thierry Frémaux was having none of it. Cannes was being held to an unfairly high standard, he claimed, one not applied to other festivals like Venice or Berlin. His suggestion? Instead, people should “attack the Oscars”.
如果你热爱生存,那么脑死亡是一件不美好的事。而且,如果你想用空闲的大脑来替换,那你是绝对找不到的。当然,也许有一天,我们能将大脑放入头骨中,但是大脑跟别的器官不同。它装有你所有的思想和记忆。人们能在你头里放一个新的大脑,但是你还是不存在,所以人造大脑这种想法看起来很荒谬。

Stress and Addiction

substances often abused

 

国务院扶贫办:扶贫工作必须务实 措施必须扎实 结果必须真实

Stress a powerful risk factor for both developing an addiction and relapsing back into addiction.107 Stress affects the reward pathways of the brain, those same pathways involved in stress, in ways that make people especially prone to become addicted to substances such as nicotine, alcohol and drugs.108

Health-supporting Mechanisms

CDC offers healthy ways to cope with stress:109

  • Take a break, even a short one
  • Breathe deeply
  • Exercise
  • Visualize
  • Scan your body for tension
  • Talk to someone
  • Focus on the here and now
  • 周边环境:这栋房屋坐落在摩德纳岛(Modena Island),距萨凡纳市中心大约20英里(约32公里)。据该房源的代理人说,该社区设有门禁,在栎树丛与咸水湿地之间坐落着大约20栋房屋。摩德纳岛是斯基达韦岛(Skidaway Island)的一部分,岛上有一座由佐治亚大学的海洋学研究所和一座大型州立公园。
  • Cut out the caffeine
  • Face the problem

What we know about stress and addiction:110

  • While heavily dominated by French and English schools, accounting for 44 per cent of the table, the ranking is more diverse than ever with schools from 25 countries.
  • “控风险”再获强调 未来房地产市场或“趋稳”
  • 在本届戛纳电影节上,女性电影制作人以及相关女性话题曾广受关注成为宣传主题。28年来,戛纳首次以女导演拍摄的电影拉开序幕,伊莎贝拉?罗西里尼(Isabella Rossellini)成为“一种关注”单元评审团主席,莎尔玛?海雅克(Salma Hayek)主持讨论会高调探讨女性角色在电影中的意义。可以讨论的话题有许多,但是真的有何改变吗?数字似乎更能说明问题,主竞赛单元的19部入围作品仅有2部来自女性导演。而后发生的“高跟鞋门”,更有.....面对外界对于影展涉嫌性别歧视的负面消息,艺术总监蒂埃里?弗雷莫(Thierry Frémaux)一点儿反应都没。他只是说,戛纳电影节的举办有着及其不公平的高标准,参展影片不能申请其他诸如威尼斯或柏林电影节。这难道是建议人们去“攻击奥斯卡”?
  • LED产业从过度竞争进入稳定收益时代
  • AIG CEO Robert Benmosche will be voted CEO of the Year.

One reason stress is a such a risk factor for substance abuse is that substance abuse can temporarily reduce anxiety caused by stressful events. As stress levels become chronic, the body responds with dysregulated hormonal states and stress-related behaviors that can produce anxiety. This predisposes an individual to seek substances that temporarily alleviate this stress-induced physical state. After the 9/11 terrorist event in the US, researchers noted a corresponding increase in the sales of various street drugs.111

Those who drink alcohol report that doing so makes them feel relaxed and less stressed. However, using alcohol as a coping mechanism for stress, especially on a regular basis, increases alcohol's harm to the body.

Stress and Antisocial or Violent Behavior

Stressors early in life are heavily associated with aggressive tendencies later in adulthood.112 Universally, childhood maltreatment is a risk factor for conduct disorders, antisocial personality symptoms, and becoming a violent offender. Research has found that abused boys experiencing erratic, coercive and punitive parenting were most at risk of antisocial behaviors later in adulthood, with the earlier the experience the more likely the negative behaviors were. Early child abuse doubles the risk a person will engage in criminal activities later in life.113

Environments That Break the Cycle of Violence114

  • Securing a stable environment
  • “曹园”租地70年:一亩林地一年3块,“不够一把筷子钱”
  • Psychotherapy
  • Promoting positive parenting
  • After Peking University, known as Bei Da, and Tsinghua University, the next highest-placed Chinese university is the University of Science and Technology of China at 15, Fudan University at 16, Shanghai Jiao Tong University at 18 and Zhejiang University at 19 in the top 20.
  • 该报告还指出,自2013年以来,中国已成为全球最大的工业机器人市场。并且在近年来,中国国内的供应商通过提供更多高端产品,正在向供应链上游进军。

This "cycle of violence" describes the association between experiencing violence during childhood and the increased risk of either becoming violent or being a victim of violence. Although the majority of maltreated do not grow up to abuse others, we do know that one in six maltreated children becomes a violent offender and one in eight sexually abused boys becomes a sex offender.115 Victims of childhood abuse are at an increased risk of abusing their own children. Researchers also have found that up to one in seven children who experienced maltreatment in childhood also experienced abuse by their spouse. Violent experiences can be collective (gang membership), self-directed (harming oneself) or interpersonal (by a parent or other).116


This page's content was created by Lorelei Walker, PhD, and Nancy Hepp, and last revised in September 2016.

CHE invites our partners to submit corrections and clarifications to this page. Please include links to research to support your submissions through the comment form on our Contact page.

卫浴未来3年将迎来更替热潮 体验式情景家居走俏

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